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(1987). In this way, stress could be experienced as eustress (positive) or dystress (negative). [5] Problem-focused coping refers to one's ability to take action and to change a situation to make it more congruent with one's goals (Smith & Kirby, 2009). [5] Researchers have attempted to specify particular appraisals of events that elicit emotions (Roseman et al., 1996).[6]. (2001). New York: Springer. A structured psychiatric intervention for cancer patients: II. A.,  Maroto,  J. J., & Pbert , L. A. The nature of stress was described in multiple ways: acute, episodic or intermittent, and chronic. 2011). Emotions are accompanied by autonomic nervous system activity. Coping strategies vary from positive thinking to denial (see Figure 16.7, “COPE Inventory”) and are measured and tested using a variety of instruments and scales such as the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). A)It involves an individual's immediate reaction to a situation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Scherer, K. R., & Shorr, A., & Johnstone, T. The experiment itself aimed to change the role that being emotionally hurt was perceived as in the appraisal process, because in this study, hurt was to be viewed as outcome of appraisal as opposed to other studies that have normally observed the aspect of hurt to be a precedent to the appraisal process. 11(1), 20-28. How the individual deal with the stress will depend on both the primary and secondary appraisal. Can you identify some coping strategies you used? A stressor would likely be appraised as a threat if one anticipates that it could lead to some kind of harm, loss, or other negative … In the case of the university soccer players, some initial stressors were identified as “a particularly challenging or sizable opponent,” “rainy conditions,” “the cold,” “not connecting with the coach,” or “negative attitudes on the field.” Typical emotion- or control-focused coping strategies included “working harder” and “sucking it up,” as well as avoidance or passivity. When faced with a challenge, an individual primarily appraises the challenge as either threatening or non-threatening, and secondarily in terms of whether he or she has the resources to respond to or cope with the challenge effectively. Hardiness has some notable similarities with other personality constructs in psychology, including locus of control (Rotter, 1966), sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1987), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997),  and dispositional optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985), all of which will be discussed in the next section. To better analyze the complexities of emotional appraisal, social psychologists have sought to further complement the structural model. Change Readiness: The Roles of Appraisal, Focus, and Perceived Control. 3. p. 22

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